**Convolutional Autoencoder**

By Prof. Seungchul Lee

http://iailab.kaist.ac.kr/

Industrial AI Lab at KAIST

http://iailab.kaist.ac.kr/

Industrial AI Lab at KAIST

Table of Contents

```
tf.keras.layers.Conv2D(filters, kernel_size, strides, padding, activation, kernel_regularizer, input_shape)
filters = 32
kernel_size = (3,3)
strides = (1,1)
padding = 'SAME'
activeation='relu'
kernel_regularizer=tf.keras.regularizers.l2(0.04)
input_shape = tensor of shape([input_h, input_w, input_ch])
```

- filter size
- the number of channels.

kernel_size

- the height and width of the 2D convolution window.

stride

- the step size of the kernel when traversing the image.

padding

- how the border of a sample is handled.
- A padded convolution will keep the spatial output dimensions equal to the input, whereas unpadded convolutions will crop away some of the borders if the kernel is larger than 1.
`'SAME'`

: enable zero padding`'VALID'`

: disable zero padding

- activation
- Activation function to use.

kernel_regularizer

- Initializer for the kernel weights matrix.

input and output channels

- A convolutional layer takes a certain number of input channels ($C$) and calculates a specific number of output channels ($D$).

**Examples**

```
input = [None, 4, 4, 1]
filter size = [3, 3, 1, 1]
strides = [1, 1, 1, 1]
padding = 'VALID'
```

```
input = [None, 5, 5, 1]
filter size = [3, 3, 1, 1]
strides = [1, 1, 1, 1]
padding = 'SAME'
```

- The need for transposed convolutions generally arises from the desire to use a transformation going in the opposite direction of a normal convolution, i.e., from something that has the shape of the output of some convolution to something that has the shape of its input while maintaining a connectivity pattern that is compatible with said convolution. For instance, one might use such a transformation as the decoding layer of a convolutional autoencoder or to project feature maps to a higher-dimensional space.

Some sources use the name deconvolution, which is inappropriate because itâ€™s not a deconvolution. To make things worse deconvolutions do exists, but theyâ€™re not common in the field of deep learning.

An actual deconvolution reverts the process of a convolution.

Imagine inputting an image into a single convolutional layer. Now take the output, throw it into a black box and out comes your original image again. This black box does a deconvolution. It is the mathematical inverse of what a convolutional layer does.

A transposed convolution is somewhat similar because it produces the same spatial resolution a hypothetical deconvolutional layer would. However, the actual mathematical operation thatâ€™s being performed on the values is different.

A transposed convolutional layer carries out a regular convolution but reverts its spatial transformation.

```
tf.keras.layers.Conv2DTranspose(filters, kernel_size, strides, padding = 'SAME', activation)
filter = number of channels/ 64
kernel_size = tensor of shape (3,3)
strides = stride of the sliding window for each dimension of the input tensor
padding = 'SAME'
activation = activation functions('softmax', 'relu' ...)
```

`'SAME'`

: enable zero padding`'VALID'`

: disable zero padding

An image of 5x5 is fed into a convolutional layer. The stride is set to 2, the padding is deactivated and the kernel is 3x3. This results in a 2x2 image.

If we wanted to reverse this process, weâ€™d need the inverse mathematical operation so that 9 values are generated from each pixel we input. Afterward, we traverse the output image with a stride of 2. This would be a deconvolution.

A transposed convolution does not do that. The only thing in common is it guarantees that the output will be a 5x5 image as well, while still performing a normal convolution operation. To achieve this, we need to perform some fancy padding on the input.

It merely reconstructs the spatial resolution from before and performs a convolution. This may not be the mathematical inverse, but for Encoder-Decoder architectures, itâ€™s still very helpful. This way we can combine the upscaling of an image with a convolution, instead of doing two separate processes.

- Another example of transposed convolution