Regression

By Prof. Seungchul Lee
http://iai.postech.ac.kr/
Industrial AI Lab at POSTECH

# 0. Video Lectures¶

In [2]:
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In [1]:
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# 1. Linear Regression¶

Consider a linear regression.

$\text{Given} \; \begin{cases} x_{i} \; \text{: inputs} \\ y_{i} \; \text{: outputs} \end{cases}$ , Find $\theta_{0}$ and $\theta_{1}$

$$x= \begin{bmatrix} x_{1} \\ x_{2} \\ \vdots \\ x_{m} \end{bmatrix}, \qquad y= \begin{bmatrix} y_{1} \\ y_{2} \\ \vdots \\ y_{m} \end{bmatrix} \approx \hat{y}_{i} = \theta_{0} + \theta_{1}x_{i}$$
• $\hat{y}_{i}$ : predicted output

• $\theta = \begin{bmatrix} \theta_{0} \\ \theta_{1} \\ \end{bmatrix}$ : Model parameters

$$\hat{y}_{i} = f(x_{i}\,; \theta) \; \text{ in general}$$
• in many cases, a linear model is used to predict $y_{i}$
$$\hat{y}_{i} = \theta_{0} + \theta_{1}x_{i} \; \quad \text{ such that }\quad \min\limits_{\theta_{0}, \theta_{1}}\sum\limits_{i = 1}^{m} (\hat{y}_{i} - y_{i})^2$$

## 1.1. Re-cast Problem as a Least Squares¶

• For convenience, we define a function that maps inputs to feature vectors, $\phi$

\begin{array}{Icr}\begin{align*} \hat{y}_{i} & = \theta_0 + x_i \theta_1 = 1 \cdot \theta_0 + x_i \theta_1 \\ \\ & = \begin{bmatrix}1 & x_{i}\end{bmatrix}\begin{bmatrix}\theta_{0} \\ \theta_{1}\end{bmatrix} \\\\ & =\begin{bmatrix}1 \\ x_{i} \end{bmatrix}^{T}\begin{bmatrix}\theta_{0} \\ \theta_{1}\end{bmatrix} \\\\ & =\phi^{T}(x_{i})\theta \end{align*}\end{array} \begin{array}{Icr} \quad \quad \text{feature vector} \; \phi(x_{i}) = \begin{bmatrix}1 \\ x_{i}\end{bmatrix} \end{array}

$$\Phi = \begin{bmatrix}1 & x_{1} \\ 1 & x_{2} \\ \vdots \\1 & x_{m} \end{bmatrix}=\begin{bmatrix}\phi^T(x_{1}) \\\phi^T(x_{2}) \\\vdots \\\phi^T(x_{m}) \end{bmatrix} \quad \implies \quad \hat{y} = \begin{bmatrix}\hat{y}_{1} \\\hat{y}_{2} \\\vdots \\\hat{y}_{m}\end{bmatrix}=\Phi\theta$$

• Optimization problem
$$\min\limits_{\theta_{0}, \theta_{1}}\sum\limits_{i = 1}^{m} (\hat{y}_{i} - y_{i})^2 =\min\limits_{\theta}\lVert\Phi\theta-y\rVert^2_2 \qquad \qquad \left(\text{same as} \; \min_{x} \lVert Ax-y \rVert_2^2 \right)$$

\begin{align*} J(x) &= (Ax-y)^T(Ax-y)\\ &=(x^TA^T - y^T)(Ax - y)\\ &=x^TA^TAx - x^TA^Ty - y^TAx + y^Ty\\\\ \frac{\partial J}{\partial x} &= A^TAx + (A^TA)^Tx - A^Ty - (y^TA)^T \\ &=A^TAx - 2A^Ty = 0\\\\ &\Rightarrow (A^TA)x = A^Ty\\\\ \therefore x^* &= (A^TA)^{-1}A^Ty \end{align*}

## 1.2. Solve Optimizaton in Linear Regression¶

### 1.2.1. Use Linear Algebra¶

• known as least square
$$\theta = (A^TA)^{-1}A^T y$$
In [1]:
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
%matplotlib inline

In [2]:
# data points in column vector [input, output]
x = np.array([0.1, 0.4, 0.7, 1.2, 1.3, 1.7, 2.2, 2.8, 3.0, 4.0, 4.3, 4.4, 4.9]).reshape(-1, 1)
y = np.array([0.5, 0.9, 1.1, 1.5, 1.5, 2.0, 2.2, 2.8, 2.7, 3.0, 3.5, 3.7, 3.9]).reshape(-1, 1)

plt.figure(figsize = (10,8))
plt.plot(x, y, 'ko')
plt.title('Data', fontsize = 15)
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.axis('equal')
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.xlim([0, 5])
plt.show()

In [3]:
m = y.shape[0]
#A = np.hstack([np.ones([m, 1]), x])
A = np.hstack([x**0, x])

print(A)

[[1.  0.1]
[1.  0.4]
[1.  0.7]
[1.  1.2]
[1.  1.3]
[1.  1.7]
[1.  2.2]
[1.  2.8]
[1.  3. ]
[1.  4. ]
[1.  4.3]
[1.  4.4]
[1.  4.9]]

In [4]:
A = np.asmatrix(A)

theta = (A.T*A).I*A.T*y

print('theta:\n', theta)

theta:
[[0.65306531]
[0.67129519]]

In [5]:
# to plot
plt.figure(figsize = (10, 8))
plt.title('Regression', fontsize = 15)
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.plot(x, y, 'ko', label = "data")

# to plot a straight line (fitted line)
xp = np.arange(0, 5, 0.01).reshape(-1, 1)
yp = theta[0,0] + theta[1,0]*xp

plt.plot(xp, yp, 'r', linewidth = 2, label = "regression")
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.axis('equal')
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.xlim([0, 5])
plt.show()


$$\min_{\theta} ~ \lVert \hat y - y \rVert_2^2 = \min_{\theta} ~ \lVert A\theta - y \rVert_2^2$$

\begin{align*} f &= (A\theta-y)^T(A\theta-y) = (\theta^TA^T-y^T)(A\theta-y) \\ &= \theta^TA^TA\theta - \theta^TA^Ty - y^TA\theta + y^Ty \\\\ \nabla f &= A^TA\theta + A^TA\theta - A^Ty - A^Ty = 2(A^TA\theta - A^Ty) \end{align*}

$$\theta \leftarrow \theta - \alpha \nabla f$$

In [6]:
theta = np.random.randn(2,1)
theta = np.asmatrix(theta)

alpha = 0.001

for _ in range(1000):
df = 2*(A.T*A*theta - A.T*y)
theta = theta - alpha*df

print (theta)

[[0.6518632 ]
[0.67165845]]

In [7]:
# to plot
plt.figure(figsize = (10, 8))
plt.title('Regression', fontsize = 15)
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.plot(x, y, 'ko', label = "data")

# to plot a straight line (fitted line)
xp = np.arange(0, 5, 0.01).reshape(-1, 1)
yp = theta[0,0] + theta[1,0]*xp

plt.plot(xp, yp, 'r', linewidth = 2, label = "regression")
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.axis('equal')
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.xlim([0, 5])
plt.show()


### 1.2.3 Scikit-Learn¶

• Machine Learning in Python
• Simple and efficient tools for data mining and data analysis
• Accessible to everybody, and reusable in various contexts
• Built on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib
• Open source, commercially usable - BSD license
In [8]:
from sklearn import linear_model

In [9]:
reg = linear_model.LinearRegression()
reg.fit(x, y)

Out[9]:
LinearRegression(copy_X=True, fit_intercept=True, n_jobs=None, normalize=False)
In [10]:
reg.coef_

Out[10]:
array([[0.67129519]])
In [11]:
reg.intercept_

Out[11]:
array([0.65306531])
In [12]:
# to plot
plt.figure(figsize = (10, 8))
plt.title('Regression', fontsize = 15)
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.plot(x, y, 'ko', label = "data")

# to plot a straight line (fitted line)
plt.plot(xp, reg.predict(xp), 'r', linewidth = 2, label = "regression")
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.axis('equal')
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.xlim([0, 5])
plt.show()


# 2. Multivariate Linear Regression¶

(= linear regression for multivariate data)

$$\hat{y} = \theta_0 + \theta_{1}x_1 + \theta_{2}x_2$$

 

$$\phi \left(x^{(i)}\right) = \begin{bmatrix}1\\x^{(i)}_{1}\\x^{(i)}_{2} \end{bmatrix}$$

$$\Phi = \begin{bmatrix}1 & x_{1}^{(1)} & x_{2}^{(1)}\\1 & x_{1}^{(2)} & x_{2}^{(2)}\\ \vdots \\1 & x_{1}^{(m)} & x_{2}^{(m)} \end{bmatrix} \quad \implies \quad \hat{y} = \begin{bmatrix}\hat{y}^{(1)} \\\hat{y}^{(2)} \\\vdots \\\hat{y}^{(m)}\end{bmatrix}=\Phi\theta$$

$$\implies \theta^{*} = (\Phi^T \Phi)^{-1} \Phi^T y$$

# 3. Nonlinear Regression¶

(= Linear Regression for Non-linear Data)

• Same as linear regression, just with non-linear features

\begin{align*} y &= \theta_0 + \theta_1 x + \theta_2 x^2 + \text{noise} \end{align*}

$$\phi(x_{i}) = \begin{bmatrix}1\\x_{i}\\x_{i}^2 \end{bmatrix}$$

$$\Phi = \begin{bmatrix}1 & x_{1} & x_{1}^2 \\ 1 & x_{2} & x_{2}^2 \\ \vdots \\ 1 & x_{m} & x_{m}^2\end{bmatrix} \quad \implies \quad \hat{y} = \begin{bmatrix}\hat{y}_1 \\\hat{y}_2 \\\vdots \\\hat{y}_m\end{bmatrix}=\Phi\theta$$

$$\implies \theta^{*} = (\Phi^T \Phi)^{-1} \Phi^T y$$
In [13]:
x = np.linspace(-4.5, 4.5, 10).reshape(-1, 1)
y = np.array([0.9819, 0.7973, 1.9737, 0.1838, 1.3180, -0.8361, -0.6591, -2.4701, -2.8122, -6.2512]).reshape(-1, 1)

plt.figure(figsize = (10, 8))
plt.plot(x, y, 'o', label = 'Data')
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.show()

In [14]:
A = np.hstack([x**0, x, x**2])
A = np.asmatrix(A)

theta = (A.T*A).I*A.T*y

xp = np.linspace(np.min(x), np.max(x))
yp = theta[0,0] + theta[1,0]*xp + theta[2,0]*xp**2

plt.figure(figsize = (10, 8))
plt.plot(x, y, 'o', markersize = 4, label = 'actual')
plt.plot(xp, yp, 'r', linewidth = 2, label = 'estimated')

plt.title('Nonlinear regression', fontsize = 15)
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.xlim([np.min(x), np.max(x)])
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.show()


# 4. Overfitting and Regularization¶

We want to balance

• how well function fits data

• magnitude of coefficients

In [15]:
x = np.linspace(-4.5, 4.5, 10)
y = np.array([0.9819, 0.7973, 1.9737, 0.1838, 1.3180, -0.8361, -0.6591, -2.4701, -2.8122, -6.2512])

p = np.polyfit(x, y, deg = 1)

In [16]:
xp = np.arange(-4.5, 4.5, 0.01)

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 8))
plt.plot(x, y, 'o', label = 'Data')
plt.plot(xp, np.polyval(p, xp), linewidth = 2, label = 'Polinomial')
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.show()

In [17]:
p = np.polyfit(x, y, deg = 9)

xp = np.arange(-4.5, 4.5, 0.01)

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 8))
plt.plot(x, y, 'o', label = 'Data')
plt.plot(xp, np.polyval(p, xp), linewidth = 2, label = 'Polinomial')
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.show()

In [18]:
p = np.polyfit(x, y, deg = 2)

xp = np.arange(-4.5, 4.5, 0.01)

plt.figure(figsize=(10, 8))
plt.plot(x, y, 'o', label = 'Data')
plt.plot(xp, np.polyval(p, xp), linewidth = 2, label = 'Polinomial')
plt.xlabel('X', fontsize = 15)
plt.ylabel('Y', fontsize = 15)
plt.legend(fontsize = 15)
plt.grid(alpha = 0.3)
plt.show()

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